Portuguese Slave Traders Were No Match for Angolan Queen Nzinga Mbandi | Atlas Obscura

In the 16th century, Portuguese slave traders turned to the Congo and southwest Africa, after their stake in the slave trade was threatened by England and France in the northern part of the continent. Their most stubborn opposition came from an unexpected source: an Angolan queen who ruthlessly…

Source: Portuguese Slave Traders Were No Match for Angolan Queen Nzinga Mbandi | Atlas Obscura

George Washington Williams and the Congo Genocide | toritto

Political cartoon from 1906 showing King Leopold of Belgium entangling the Congolese in rubber coils

“At the very beginning of the twentieth century there was an unquenchable demand in America and Europe for an amazing new technology—air-filled rubber tires. The Age of the Railroad was ending. Henry Ford was making cars by the million, bicycles were pouring out of factories, freight was moving in gasoline-powered trucks, and they all ran on rubber. The Congo had more natural rubber than anywhere else.

To meet this demand King Leopold II of Belgium, in one of the greatest scams in history, tricked local tribes into signing away their lands and lives in bogus treaties that none of them could read. He sold these “concessions” to speculators who used torture and murder to drive whole communities into the jungle to harvest rubber.

The profits from the slave-driving concessions were stupendous. Wild rubber, as well as elephant ivory for piano keys and decoration, was ripped out of…

Source: George Washington Williams and the Congo Genocide | toritto