In the early summer of 1914, Europe had no idea what was coming its way. Are we in a similar daze today?
Originally posted on The July Crisis: 100 Years On, 1914-2014.
On 25 July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Leopold Count Berchtold (pictured), circulated a memoir to all Austro-Hungarian diplomatic missions. The memoir formed the basis of Austria-Hungary’s view of Serbia, and the Dual Monarchy’s rational during the July Crisis. From the Austro-Hungarian perspective, it lists the different forms of Serbian aggression endured since the beginning of the century, culminating in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife at Sarajevo. The following is part IV of the memoir.
Circular Note to the Austro-Hungarian Mission. Vienna, 25 July 1914.
A few months previously, research with regard to treasonable propaganda had been instituted on Luka Aljinovicz’s account. In the course of these investigations three witnesses had testified against Aljinovicz, who, they said had in 1913 received 100 dinar from the Narodna odbrana for purposes of propaganda, but more especially for an attempt upon the life of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and a secret student society had given him the same sum.
This shows how the criminal agitation of the Narodna odbrana was recently concentrated upon the person of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
All these facts lead to the conclusion that the Narodjia odbrana, and the elements hostile to Austria-Hungary grouped around it, had recently considered the…
On 23 July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs Leopold Count Berchtold (pictured) sent a telegram to all the Austro-Hungarian Missions except the Signatory Embassies, the Balkan Legations, the Embassies in Madrid, Rome (Vatican), Washington, Tokyo, and Stockholm, which he had already notified (see two previous posts). In his telegram, he informs the Ambassadors of the delivery of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia to enable them to notify the governments they are accredited to.
Count Berchtold to all the Imperial and Royal Missions except the Signatory Embassies, the Balkan Legations, the Embassies in Madrid, Rome (Vatican), Washington, Tokyo, and Stockholm. Vienna, 23 July 1914.
The Imperial and Royal Minister in Belgrade today, Thursday 23 July 1914 presented a note to the Royal Servian government in which the latter is called upon to accept a number of demands within forty-eight hours, which we have been forced to…
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On 20 July 1914, Count Berchtold sent a momentous telegram to Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Serbia. In it, he asks his minister to present an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July, along with its text.
Count Berchtold to Baron von Giesl. Vienna, 20 July 1914.
You are asked to present the following note to the Royal government on the afternoon of the 23rd of July, not later than between four and five o’clock.
“On the 31rst March 1909 the Royal Servian Minister at the court of Vienna by order of his government made the following declaration before the Imperial and Royal government: ‘Servia acknowledges that none of its rights have been
touched by the situation created in Bosnia and Herzegovina and that it will therefore accomodate itself to the decisionswhich the powers will resolve with regard to the article XXV of the Treaty of Berlin. Servia, in following the advice of the Great Powers…
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I hope that nobody is unaware of the fact that 2014 marks the one hundredth anniversary of the start of the First World War, in August 1914. To many of you, especially those still young, it might seem like a dusty old piece of history, played out on TV in black and white. You may well consider that it has no relevance any more, and it is of no interest to you whatsoever. You will have no intention of sitting through the endless documentaries, dramatised reconstructions, or worthy coverage of commemorations. Please think again. We can all learn much from the follies of this tragic conflict, and the reasons that it began.
My own grandparents were born in the year 1900. Both of my grandfathers were lucky enough to not have to serve in this war, as they only reached the required age of 18 as the war ended. Other…
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Archuduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, the Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip while on tour in Sarajevo. The following are newspaper excerpts recounting the events at Sarajevo.
SPECIAL CABLE TO THE NEW YORK TIMES.
Sarajevo, Bosnia, June 28,- Archduke Francis Ferdinand successor to
the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg,
were shot and killed by a Bosnian student here today. The fatal shooting
was the second attempt upon the lives of the couple during the day, and is believed to have been the result of a political conspiracy.
This morning, as Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess were
driving to a reception at the Town Hall a bomb was thrown at their motor
car. The Archduke pushed it off with his arm.
The bomb did not explode until after the Archduke’s car had passed
on, and the occupants of the next car, Count…
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