Where bread began: Ancient tools used to reconstruct — and taste — prehistoric cuisine | Ancientfoods

Original article:

Eurkalert.org

PUBLIC RELEASE: 26-AUG-2015

BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY

Team including researchers from Bar-Ilan University and Harvard University unravel the mystery of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars found throughout Southwestern Asia.

Using 12,500-year-old conical mortars carved into bedrock, they reconstructed how their ancient ancestors processed wild barley to produce groat meals, as well as a delicacy that might be termed “proto-pita” – small loaves of coal-baked, unleavened bread. In so doing, they re-enacted a critical moment in the rise of civilization: the emergence of wild-grain-based nutrition, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before our hunter-gatherer forebears would establish the sedentary farming communities which were the hallmark of the “Neolithic Revolution”.

The research team, consisting of independent researchers as well as faculty members from Bar-Ilan and Harvard Universities, conducted their study in the Late Natufian site of Huzuq Musa, located in Israel’s…

Source: Where bread began: Ancient tools used to reconstruct — and taste — prehistoric cuisine | Ancientfoods

Evil Tea

texthistory

I had read of how people like the Wesleys condemned tea drinking and I thought it was to do with it being imported, or maybe the high cost for the poor, but John Wesley actually claimed it was more dangerous than heroin, which is quite an extraordinary claim, but there were sound reasons for this.

Agricultural workers were traditionally paid in part in food produced on the farm, which included plentiful supplies of cider in the south, which Cecil Torr who I have often quoted,claimed was full of natural goodness, safe as they knew how to make it, and full of calories. Whereas tea had no calories, but prevented people from absorbing food. Part of this is the tannin – used to tan leather – it does the same to your insides, denaturing the proteins and preventing the action of digestive enzymes, fine if you’re battling food poisoning or trying…

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History of Bulgaria

Autumn in the Rhodope mountains, Southern Bulgaria

Autumn in the Rhodope mountains, Southern Bulgaria

Originally posted on History of Bulgaria

Introduction

The historical development of the Bulgarian lands and the people that inhabited them in the antiquity has been determined by one major factor – their crossroads situation between Europe and Asia. The waves of settlers that swept from both continents into the south or into the north at different times, quite often turned the plains of Thrace, Moesia, Macedonia and the Balkan mountains into an arena of fierce clashes. Prior to the settlement of the Bulgarians about fifteen hundred years ago, this most contended land of the European civilization had seen other people’s cultures, with markedly impressive presence in the history of humankind on the planet Earth come, evolve and then, tragically go.

The earliest traces of human life on the Bulgarian lands date back to Paleolithic and Mesolithic times. The brilliant drawings in some Bulgarian caves and the flint labor tools are the only remnants of the primitive man, the Homo sapiens forebear.

The emergence of Homo sapiens in the lands of present-day Bulgaria seems to have taken place only about two thousand years after his initial appearance in the lands between Mesopotamia and Palestine. As to their nature and geographic situation, the Bulgarian lands are close to the so-called ‘optimal natural environment’ which is a prerequisite for man to come out of the caves and for the formation of the first agricultural and cattle-breeding communities that subsisted no longer on hunting and on wild fruit-collecting, but on a premeditated production of food and goods. Groups of people started settling down all over the lands of present-day Bulgaria, mainly in river valleys and in coastal regions. It was there that the people of the Neolithic were able to benefit from the magnificent natural wealth: rivers, rivulets and streams, fertile and easily cultivated lands, rock and clay deposits, vast forests and pastures. The one-thousand-year-long life of those settlements in the same place has brought about enormous piles of debris and other household waste, known as ‘settlement mounds’.

The introduction of metals gave further impetus to the development of human civilization in the lands between the Danube and the Aegean Sea in the IV-II millennia BC. As evident from the archeological excavations, copper production and, subsequently, that of bronze and precious metals were rather impressive for the scale of that remote epoch. These were concentrated in the Bulgarian lands rich in copper-containing ores. The analysis of the metal tools and the unprocessed pieces of metal found in various regions of Central, Eastern and Southern Europe has come to show…

via History of Bulgaria.