The persistent coverup of Serbia’s horrid and active role in the WWII Holocaust and the fact that in May 1942 Serbia was one of the first European countries to declare itself Jew-free (Judenfrei) had prostituted factual history to…
On the 31st of July 1919, the Italian Jewish chemist and writer Primo Levi was born in Turin, Italy. A survivor of the Auschwitz concentration camp, he emerged after the war as one of the most incisive and candid intellects among those writers who had experienced the Holocaust. He grew up during the years preceding World War II in the relative comfort of a middle class at a time in Italy when being of Jewish ancestry had not yet become a cause of segregation and persecution. In 1937, he enrolled at the University of Turin to study chemistry, which was only one year before the promulgation of the Fascist racial laws. Along with other restrictions, the latter prohibited Jews in Italy from attending public schools. However, due to the fact that he had already begun his studies, he was allowed to remain at university until the completion of his course…
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To understand Croatia’s war in the 1990s, one needs to understand the historical background, as well as geopolitical interests of the international community, neighbours and international powers – and all of those interests before, during and after the war, as well as in the future.Croatia was, and still is, the hottest piece of geographic real estate in Europe. Croatia is the…
Throughout the period, the “secret sauce” of Ottoman power was an army of élite infantry called “Janissaries”. Janissaries were Christian slaves, usually taken as spoils of…
Otto Witte – a German circus performer – claimed he was crowned King of Albania on the 13th of August, 1913. When Albania broke free of the Ottoman Empire and Serbian occupation, a Musl…
In the early days of World War 1 Serbia achieved some remarkable victories against the first invading Austro-Hungarian forces. The Serbian army had managed to repulse three successive large-scale invasions, but by December 1915, was forced to retreat.
After the efforts of the Austro-Hungarians increased, and were then backed up by German and Bulgarian forces, the Serbian Army found itself far more outnumbered than ever before. On top of this, Serbia had only just been through the worst typhus epidemic in history for most of the year until October, losing around 150,000 people in addition to the many more casualties of war.
Shortly after the massive invasion in October, a full retreat was ordered, with the plan to head south through allied Montenegro and neutral Albania. Unfortunately, the journey would not go as planned for multiple reasons. The retreating forces were joined with a mass evacuation of civilians, who were equally under-prepared and…
On 25 July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Leopold Count Berchtold (pictured), circulated a memoir to all Austro-Hungarian diplomatic missions, with slight variation to the introductory paragraph depending on the mission. The memoir formed the basis of Austria-Hungary’s view of Serbia, and the Dual Monarchy’s rational during the July Crisis. From the Austro-Hungarian perspective, it lists the different forms of Serbian aggression endured since the beginning of the century. The following is part I of the memoir.
Circular Note to the Austro-Hungarian Mission. Vienna, 25 July 1914.
You will find enclosed the dossier, announced in the Circular Note to the Powers, which contains details on the propaganda for Greater Servia, and its connection with the crime of Sarajevo. This dossier is for your information and for communication to the government to which you are accredited.
The movement, which has its origin in Servia…
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The following is one of the rare telephone transcripts in the Austro-Hungarian Red Book. On 25 July, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Serbia, Wladimir von Giesl (pictured), instructed his Secretary of Legation, Count Kinsky, to telephone Austro-Hungarian authorities in Budapest. The transcript confirms that Giesl had broken off diplomatic relations with Serbia.
Baron von Giesl on the Telephone.
Sent by Secretary of Legation Count Kinsky on Saturday, 25 July 1914 at 19:45 in the evening.
Minister Baron Giesl telephones from Semlin to Budapest:
Two minutes before 18:00 the answer [to the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia] was presented; as it is unsatisfactory on several points, Baron Giesl has broken off diplomatic relations and has left Belgrade. At 15:00 this afternoon the [Serbian] general mobilisation was proclaimed.
The [Serbian] Government and the Diplomatic Corps have left for Kragujevac.
Source: 1919 Austro-Hungarian Red Book, with minor edits.
Defendants Josip Perkovic , left,
and Zdravko Mustac, second right,
former members of the Yugoslav secret service,
arrive for their trial in a Munich courtroom
Friday Oct. 17, 2014. A former head of Yugoslavia’s
secret service and a one-time subordinate
have gone on trial in Germany
over the 1983 killing of a Croatian national in Bavaria.
Zdravko Mustac and former subordinate Josip Perkovic,
who later created independent Croatia’s spy agency,
are both charged with being accessories
to the murder of Stjepan Djurekovic.
The dissident was shot and beaten on July 28, 1983
in a garage in Wolfratshausen, near Munich.
(AP Photo//Michaela Rehle,Pool)
How much the “West” will have to answer for – or at least express profound regret – as its complicity in Communist crimes is gradually revealed, may be something that will come to light in no other place but Germany. The past couple of decades have been marked…
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On 20 July 1914, Count Berchtold sent a momentous telegram to Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Serbia. In it, he asks his minister to present an ultimatum to Serbia on 23 July, along with its text.
Count Berchtold to Baron von Giesl. Vienna, 20 July 1914.
You are asked to present the following note to the Royal government on the afternoon of the 23rd of July, not later than between four and five o’clock.
“On the 31rst March 1909 the Royal Servian Minister at the court of Vienna by order of his government made the following declaration before the Imperial and Royal government: ‘Servia acknowledges that none of its rights have been
touched by the situation created in Bosnia and Herzegovina and that it will therefore accomodate itself to the decisionswhich the powers will resolve with regard to the article XXV of the Treaty of Berlin. Servia, in following the advice of the Great Powers…
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The most important question for us is, what, if any, are the intentions of the Austro-Hungarian Government as regards the Serajevo outrage. Until now I have been unable to find this out, and my other colleagues are in a similar position. The word has now been passed round here not to tell anybody anything.
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